Monopoly: Complete control of trade of goods or

Liberation: To free a country or a person from any

Artefact: Relic or object of historical
importance found in excavation

Periodisation: Demarcation of time into different
periods of the past

Archives: Is an accumulation of historical
records or the physical place they are 

Survey: To study or investigate important
facts and figures regarding a 
particular subject

Sati: The Hindu custom of widow throwing
herself on to her husband’s 
funeral pyre


1. History is
a study of the past events.

2.  Historical
events need to be seen in the context of dates.

3. Dates are
important in history because they help to show cause and effect relationships
between events.

4. The
demarcations of time into different periods of the past is known as ‘Periodisation’.

5. James Mill
proposed the periodisation of Indian history as Hindu, Muslim and British
periods. Later, historians divided the Indian history into three periods, viz.,
ancient, medieval and modern.

6. The
subjugation of one country by another more powerful country, leading to
political, economic, social and cultural changes is called colonization.

7.  It involves dominating the original
inhabitants of the area.

8.  There are
many sources of information of the modern period like administrative records,
surveys, photographs, letters, government orders and official records, etc.

9. The British
government set up archives and museums. These are the store houses of document artifacts
which are useful for the period under study.
10.  The British surveyed and mapped the whole country.

    A.    Choose the correct option:

1. The work of the National Archives is to.

Preserve the records of the
government of India.
Preserve artefacts of the ancient
Print all the records
All the above

2. The survey of India was set
up in 1767 in.

Delhi                    c)  Calcutta
Dehradun            d) Madras

3. An important monument built
in Madras (now Chennai) during the British rule in India:

Fort St. William                 c) Fort
St. George
Victoria  Terminus            d) 
Prince of Wales Museum

4. A popular Bengali newspaper
of pre independence India was.
Maharatta             c) 
Bande Matram       d) Yugantar
B. Fill in the blanks:

The National Museum of India is
located in New Delhi

The Survey of India was set up in 1767
rooms were made in all government offices to preserve documents.

Before printing all documents were
copied out by calligraphists

C.  Match the columns:

1.    A  Nation in the Making                               a)  
Bharatendu Harishchandra

2.    Anandmath                                                     b)  
Dinbandhu  Mitra

Bharat Durdasda                                           c)  Bankim  Chandra 
Neel Durpan                                                   d)  
Surendranath   Banarjeee
D. Correct
the incorrect statements:

The museums hold many artefacts which
are useful for the period under study.

There is no dearth of
sources of information of the modern period.

The Imperial Record Department was
transferred to New Delhi in 1947. (1911)

The National Museum and the National
Archives were both located near the British Viceroy’s residence.
E.  Short – Answer questions.

What is colonisation?

Ans. Colonisation refers to the subjugation of one country by the other
militarily advanced and a powerful nation. Colonisation results in political,
economic, cultural and social changes in the subjugated country. Colonialism
was a prominent phenomena beginning from the 17
th centuries till the
20th centuries. Mostly Asia and Africa was colonised by the European and
Western nations.

Why did the British begin surveys in

The British believed that a country had to be properly known before it could be
effectively administered. By the early nineteenth century detailed surveys were
being carried out to map the entire country.
begin surveys in India to map all of India. Revenue surveys (to decide how much
tax was to be collected from where) were conducted in villages in order to know
the topography, the quality of soil, flora, fauna, cropping patterns, etc. By
the end of the 19th century, the British had started conducting census
operations which provided information about the distribution of population in
different provinces, castes, religions, and their occupations.

Why are dates important in history?

Dates are important to study history for the following reasons

Dates in history, act as a breakthrough.
They help us to clearly understand the
events of the past.

Dates are important measures to
differentiate between different events of history.

Dates chronologically display cause and
influence relations between historical events.

By identifying the exact date of an event
for instance, when this event happened, we can more precisely analyse different
cultures at a specific point of time.

What is periodisation?

Ans. Periodization is the process or study of
categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time. This is
usually done in order to facilitate the study and analysis of history,
understanding current and historical processes, and causality that might have
linked those events.

5.     What periodisation
of Indian history had been proposed by James Mill? 

Ans. James Mill divided Indian history into three
periods—Hindu, Muslim and British. 
This periodisation has its
own problem.

It is not correct to refer to any period of
history as ‘Hindu’ or ‘Muslim’ because a variety of faiths existed
simultaneously in these periods.

It is also not justified to characterise an
age through the religion of the rulers of the time.

It is worth-mentioning that even rulers in
ancient India did not all share the same faith.

F. Long Answer questions

Question 1. Discuss the defects in the
periodisation done by James Mills.
Ans. James mill wrote a book ‘A history of British India’ in 1817. in which he
classified Indian History into three parts- Hindu, Muslim & British.
According to his telling of history, before the British came to India, Hindu
& Muslim despots ruled the country. Castism, superstitions and religious
practices affected the lives. Mill thought that European practices and manners
should be introduced in India to make it civilised. It has been argued by many
historians that it is not correct to periodise Indian history on the basis of
religion of the rulers. For example, when the Hindu kings ruled in ancient
India, many religions existed peacefully. The same is also true for mediaeval
India. It was not correct to periodise mediaeval India as Muslim History
because people belonging to different faiths existed during this time. Such periodisation
which was based on the religion of the rulers suggests that the lives,
practices and culture of the other people do not matter.

Question 2. Why did the Britishers preserve
official records?
Ans. For the British, the act of writing was
important. Every official document had to be clearly
written up and preserved. Every instruction, plan, policy decision,
agreement, investigation had to be clearly written up. Once this was done,
things could be properly studied and debated. The preserved documents
could be used as a point of reference whenever required.

Question 3. What are the shortcomings of official
Ans. Britishers ruled India for two centuries and
made India one of their colonies; there were many drawbacks and loopholes in
the record which the British maintained. Over the years, statistics only show
how their policies only benefitted their people and how it helped them grow as
a nation. They never mentioned or spoke about the violence they did on the poor
Indians. They also didn’t give details about how the Indians suffered to meet
their daily needs. Though these records provide valuable information, we need
to be careful while interpreting them. We should keep in mind that these
records were written from the perspective of the British officials. They may have
overlooked certain issues or may have modified certain aspects to suit their

Question 4. Why do we lack information on the
lives of peasants and tribal people?

Ans. People like peasants
and tribals were majorly illiterate. They were involved only in their occupation.
Their lack of knowledge inhibited them to restore and record their history.
That is the reason why do we lack information on the lives of peasants and
tribal people.

complete the exercises give under Extended Learning by yourself.


According to you, what was the most significant event of the modern
period of Indian history?
Value Based

What are your views on the periodisation done by james Mill? Should the
religion of a ruler be considered so important?
Life Skills

1.     Imagine you are an
editor of a newspaper during British rule in India. Write an article on the
practice of Sati in the society. Find out from internet, how did the British
rulers intervened to stop this inhuman practice.
Project work

Watch a film on India’s independence struggle like,
‘Shaheed Bhagat Singh’ and write down your inferences about the British rule
after seeing the Film.

Read the English translation of the play “Neel Durpan’
by Dinabandhu Mitra. Write about the condition of the indigo cultivators
according to the book.
Picture Study

The pictures of colonial rule are an important
source of information. Describe what you see in the given picture. What
information does it give you about the British rule in India?